Historia de Mallorca
Talayot de Mallorca
Los restos más primitivos encontrados en Mallorca datan del 3500 a. C. en la época del Neolítico, período de transición entre la Edad del Bronce, donde los primeros objetos de cobre hacen aparición. Los primeros pobladores conocidos de las islas, (aunque de dudosa procedencia), fueron los honderos baleáricos.5
En el término municipal de Calviá, en la localidad de Santa Ponsa se encuentra una pequeña elevación montañosa llamada Puig de sa Morisca que posee un parque arqueológico con restos de navetas y cuevas sepulcrales que abarca una extensión de 35 hectáreas.
Hacia 1300 a. C. vivió cambios cruciales que dieron como resultado el surgimiento de la cultura talayótica. Esta cultura guerrera perduró después de que Quinto Cecilio Metelo (que recibiría más tarde el sobrenombre de Balearicus), conquistara la isla para la república romana en el año 123 a. C. Debido a las frecuentes incursiones piratas con base en las islas, Roma decidió apoderarse del archipiélago. Cuenta la leyenda que el general romano tuvo que proteger sus embarcaciones con pieles de animales, porque los honderos disparando con sus hondas les impedían desembarcar. Las legiones romanas tardaron dos años en someter las islas. Tras la conquista, los honderos pasaron a formar parte de las tropas auxiliares romanas combatiendo de manera destacada junto a Julio César en la conquista de la Galia (las corazas defensivas no resultaban muy efectivas contra los proyectiles de los honderos). Los romanos fundaron un castro sobre un peñasco en la desembocadura del torrente hoy conocido como “sa Riera”, aproximadamente donde hoy se halla el palacio de la Almudaina, que fue el origen de la ciudad de Palma.
En el año 425 Mallorca sufrió la invasión y el saqueo de los vándalos, entre los cuales destaca Podgorico Walka, pueblo germánico que se asentó en la isla hasta el año 534, cuando el general bizantino Belisario ordenó conquistar el archipiélago balear.
En 707 tuvo lugar el primer desembarco musulmán del que se tiene constancia. Siguieron dos siglos de zozobra permanente hasta que a partir del año 903 Mallorca quedó en poder de la dinastía musulmana de los omeyas. El latín es sustituido entonces por el árabe. A continuación vino una etapa floreciente, durante la que Madina Mayurqa, la Palma actual, fue un gran centro cultural.
En 1115 una escuadra pisano-catalana atacó Mallorca en una expedición de castigo en represalia por las actividades de piratería que se llevaban a cabo desde la isla. Saqueada y destruida por primera vez Medina Mayurqa, y en ausencia de Ramón Berenguer III, sus hombres y aliados huyeron al avistar una escuadra almorávide que fue enviada desde África a hacerles frente. La isla quedó en manos de una familia almorávide, los Banu Ganiya, que fomentaron la piratería contra las naves cristianas. Posteriormente, en 1203, los almohades se apoderaron de Mallorca. En 1208, los almohades designaron gobernador a Abú Yahya, que formó un principado semi-independiente, con apenas una sumisión formal al emir almohade.
Spain is a country known for it’s delicious tapas! In each region of Spain, you will find tapas that are traditional to that area! In Mallorca, tapas are a part of the daily culture for locals, just as basking in the sun on the beaches are too! Tapas in Mallorca are made with ingredients directly from the island, which highlights the vegetables and meats that are traditional to Mallorca.
The Frit Mallorquí is a traditional dish from Mallorca, made of roasted meats such as lamb, kid or turkey, and then boiled in the blood of pork. The dish is made by frying onions, potatoes, tomatoes and red pepper in olive oil. Then it is seasoned with salt, pepper, chili, garlic, fennel and laurel. In past times, communities and/or families would slaughter a pig and then use the parts that could not be preserved in Frit Mallorquí. The dish has Sephardic origin, and appears to be in ancient recipes, like Libre de Sent Soví (century XIV).
The Bullit is a Mallorquín dish that is usually prepared during the winter season. The dish consists of vegetables and meats, that are always cooked together, but eaten separately. You start the meal with a soup, made from the broth of the bullit. The next course consists of the cooked vegetables and meats, which are drizzled with olive oil, vinegar, and sprinkled with salt. Whatever is leftover is chopped up and fried on a large pan with olive oil, salt, and laurel. These leftovers are called “old clothes,” which are important when making Croquettas de Bullit.
This is a popular sausage found in Mallorca. Butifarró is made of raw pork, blood, various spices, and salt. The sausage can be mild or a bit spicy. Commonly found are croquettes filled with béchamel, Butifarró and other seasonal abundant ingredients. One of the most beloved Tapas in Mallorca by its locals!
Coca de Trampó
One of the most famous and typical tapa of Mallorquín cuisine is Coco de Trampó. It utilizes in-season vegetables and is quick to prepare. Although it may appear to look like a pizza, the flavor is much different and does not include a heavy tomato sauce and gooey cheese as one might expect on a pizza. The main ingredients include onions, green and red peppers, tomatoes and garlic. Despite it’s simplicity and quick preparation, after one bite you will understand why it is so popular!
Cojonudo de Sobrasada
If you do not already know, sobrasada is one of the most important Tapas in Mallorca. It comes from a special variety of black pork. It is a delicacy on the island and is made with spices like paprika, salt and raw black pork. Sobrasada is used in a popular tapa called Cojonudo de Sobrasada, which is a piece of bread topped with slices of sobrasada, fried egg, and queso (cheese).
Huevos Rotos con Sobrasada
One of my most favorite tapas ever! Let me introduce you to Huevos Rotos con Sobrasada. It is a simple but flavor full tapas. It starts with a base of french fries and is then topped with a fried egg and a sprinkle of sobrasada. The key to this dish is to break the fried egg on top so that the sobrasada and egg melt into the french fries. It is amust try!
Olives Trencades amb Fonoll
The Mallorquín Olive or Trencada is a part of every breakfast in Mallorca, especially with sandwiches! The Olives Trencades am Fonoll are made with a common olive variety found on Serra de Tramuntana in Mallorca. The olives are large and have an incredible taste which makes them so special. Sometimes they can be ordered “broken,” which is done by mechanical procedures. The olives are cured with water, salt, fennel, bay leaf, hot pepper and lemon peel. The olives brine for four months and then are ready to be eaten “broken” style!
If you need a reason to enjoy a delicious bottle of wine than this tapas is perfect. In Mallorca, it is very common to get together with your friends at someone’s home or a bar to enjoy Pa amb Oil, which means bread with oil. Other bite-sized, small portioned foods are served with the bread and oil too (AKA tapas). In this case, I have chosen Camaiot, which comes from the pork cheeks. It is a cured sausage that pairs well with Queso Mahones (cheese). Both have very unique flavors, but complement a great glass of wine and a few slices of bread. One of the must-try tapas in Mallorca
While on your visit to Mallorca, listen carefully, you might hear a local saying “berenar.” This verb translates to “having breakfast,” which is a part of the culture on the island and is a daily tradition. You might be wondering what makes berenar so special in Mallorca? After-all, many people have breakfast every single day without necessarily calling it a tradition. Let’s spend some time learning about the typical breakfast and the best Mallorcan pastries, to understand why it is such a special custom!
Ca’n Joan De S’aigo
In Old Town Palma, you will definitely want to make a visit to Ca’n Joan De S’aigo, not only for its traditional and historical decoration but for it’s bakery! Their baked goods are made fresh every day from scratch. During the 18th century, the restaurant originally only sold ice cream because the shop was responsible for transporting ice from Sierra de Tramontana back to the main city. Because the business was constantly transporting ice, for financial reasons the workers decided to start making ice cream, in order to make a profit off of their labor. Later in the century, they started to offer hot chocolate and baked goods, which are now a tradition locals and visitors still enjoy to this day!
Fornet de la Soca
Another fantastic spot to visit in the heart of Palma is Fornet de la Soca. Here, you will find more traditional Mallorcan pastries that can be enjoyed for breakfast (or any time of the day if we are being honest). This bakery takes pride in themselves with the fact that they have from the beginning used only natural and raw ingredients in their handmade pastries. Here, they have a strong passion for baking with local products because it honors the culture and earth that has contributed to their success in developing pleasing flavors, both locals and travelers love.
In the village of Llucmajor you can find some of the tastiest ensaimadas in all of Mallorca. Can Tofolet is a quaint bakery, modest in size but bursting with sweetness! This bakery does not have advertisement on the door, so you will have to ask the locals on Calle Paraires 8 (Llucmajor Suites) where to find it.
Ensaimadas are typically plain, but here they offer alternatives with creative flavor combinations. Some delicious options are chocolate, cream, or apricot filled and also Cabello de Angel. Cabello de Angle means angel hair and is a pastry filled with a jam made from pumpkin and sugar. Usually it is also seasoned with cinnamon and/or citrus.
If you see one of these on a menu – order it!
Here is a list of mallorcan pastries, full of wonderful flavor and historical importance to the island!
- Ensaimada: A perfect choice for breakfast if you are looking for something simple! It does not contain extra fillings, making it a great option for dipping in to your morning Cafe con Leche (coffee with milk). Traditional ingredients, which are still used today, include lard from pork, eggs, flour, sugar, warm water and fresh yeast. The use of pork lard is traditional to Mallorca because it is made from reduced pork from the island.
- Cremadillo: One of the most typical pastries of Mallorca. The name comes from slightlyburning the pastry, giving the pastry a crunchiness that can be noticed in the flaky texture. The main ingredients are puff pastry and custard, which combine to give you the ultimate flavor bomb!
- Cocarrio: Similar to a meat empanada, it is Mallorca’s version of this traditional savory breakfast snack. Although variants exist, the ingredients commonly used are Swiss chard, onion and raisins.
- Empanadas: These are most typical during Christmas and Easter. Although they are only around for certain periods during the year, they are an indispensable piece of Mallorquín gastronomy that make Mallorca the perfect destination during these holidays.
- Llonget: This is a thick, spongey bun, great for making sandwiches. Usually filled with pork and cheese, but can be ordered with other variations. Commonly cycling groups order this with a glass of wine as a hearty breakfast to keep them going through the day until time for Siesta!
There are many options to taste delicious Mallorcan pastries in the Island. Pick whatever looks the best or what feels right because I guarantee that you will not be disappointed! Join me on one of my many tours through out Mallorca as well, as we explore the delicious cuisine of the island.